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NIOSH Science Blog Posts

Industrial Exoskeletons

Exoskeletons used in the workplace are referred to as “industrial exoskeletons.” Their purpose is to augment, amplify, or reinforce the performance of a worker’s existing body components—primarily the lower back and the upper extremity (arms and shoulders). Despite a lack of research, manufacturers of these devices claim productivity gains, work quality improvements, and a reduction Read More >

Posted on by John Howard, MD; Vladimir Murashov, PhD; Brian D. Lowe, PhD, CPE; and Jack Lu, PhD, CPE3 Comments

Understanding the Economic Benefit Associated with NIOSH Research and Services: A Second Report of NIOSH Impact by RAND

NIOSH continues to quantify the benefits of its research and services in terms of lives saved, injuries or illnesses averted, or increases in worker productivity. Three new case studies highlight the economic benefits of personal dust monitors for coal miners, improved ambulance design, and improved amputation surveillance. These case studies are presented in a new Read More >

Posted on by John Howard, MD; Tim Bushnell, PhD, MPA; Rene Pana-Cryan, PhD; Brian Quay, MS; and Tapas Ray, PhD1 Comment


人造石檯面,又稱「石英石檯面」,由石英骨料和樹脂粘合劑聚合而成。這些材料的外觀與天然石材相似,正越來越廣泛地用於住宅建築和家居裝飾中。在 2010 年至 2018 年間,美國的石英石檯面進口量已增加了近 800%(美國國際貿易委員會)。人造石材含有的結晶矽可能比天然石材多得多(含量 > 90%,而花崗岩中含量 < 45%)(職業安全與健康管理局 [OSHA]/美國國家職業安全衛生研究所 [NIOSH] 危害警報)。諸如切割、打磨、拋光和鑽孔一類的作業有可能將危險含量的矽塵擴散到空氣中。吸入含矽的材料(例如人造石)粉塵會導致矽肺病。矽肺病由肺部疤痕引起,可導致永久性肺損傷,是一種漸進的、致人衰竭的、不可治愈的甚至是致命的疾病。   接觸矽塵會對製造、加工和安裝天然石材檯面和人造石檯面的工人帶來健康危害。矽肺病的症狀可包括咳嗽、疲勞、氣短或胸痛。在接觸可吸入的結晶矽塵長達 10 年或更長時間之後,通常會發生矽肺病。但是,密集的接觸會導致該病進展更快,還會導致更嚴重的肺病。除矽肺病外,吸入少量(「可吸入的」)結晶矽顆粒還會引發肺癌、慢性阻塞性肺病 (COPD) 和腎病,並且會伴發肺部感染、自身免疫性疾病和心血管受損。   先前在美國德克薩斯州曾報導過一例與人造石加工有關的矽肺病病例(Friedman,2015 年)。最近,在加利福尼亞州、科羅拉多州、華盛頓州和德克薩斯州的石材加工業工人中發現了 18 例矽肺病,其中兩例死亡(Rose 和 Heinzerling,2019 年)。這些工人中大多數從事人造石材料的作業,年齡大多不到 50 歲。以色列、西班牙和澳洲也曾報導過人造石工人中暴發矽肺病的情況(Kramer,2012 年;Perez-Alonso,2014 年;Hoy,2018 年;Leso,2019 年)。澳洲昆士蘭州為所有處於風險中的石材加工工人提供了醫學篩查,從中發現有 12% 的工人患上了矽肺病(Kirby,2019 年)。2018 年,美國已有近 9000 家公司和 96000 名員工從事石材加工業(美國勞工統計局的季度就業和工資普查)。由於這些員工中有許多人大概未進行過醫學檢查,因此美國很可能還有其他矽肺病病例仍未發現。   僱主必須為工人做好保護,確保他們不直接與結晶矽塵接觸。聯邦職業安全與健康管理局 (OSHA) 已簽發兩項可吸入的結晶矽塵標準,以為工人提供保護。施工標準 (29 CFR 1926.1153) 以及一般工業和海事作業標準 (29 CFR 1910.1053) 均於 2016 年 Read More >

Posted on by 由公共衛生碩士 Katelynn Dodd、醫學博士 Amy Heinzerling、醫學博士 Cecile Rose、理學碩士兼美國註冊工業衛生師 Carolyn Reeb-Whitaker,以及醫學博士及公共衛生碩士 Robert HarrisonLeave a comment

Brote de silicosis entre los trabajadores de mesones de piedra de ingeniería en cuatro estados

Los mesones hechos con piedras de ingeniería, que también se llaman “superficies de cuarzo”, se producen fusionando agregados de cuarzo con un aglutinante de resina. Estos materiales tienen una apariencia similar a la de la piedra natural y su uso se ha vuelto cada vez más popular en la construcción de casas y las mejoras Read More >

Posted on by Katelynn Dodd, MPH; Amy Heinzerling, MD; Cecile Rose, MD; Carolyn Reeb-Whitaker, MS, CIH; and Robert Harrison, MD, MPHLeave a comment

Asociación para educar sobre la seguridad y salud del trabajador a personas que están aprendiendo inglés en Alaska

Cuando piensa acerca de la diversidad en los Estados Unidos, ¿le viene a la mente Alaska? Lo cierto es que Anchorage, en Alaska, tiene algunos de los vecindarios y algunas de las escuelas públicas con mayor diversidad étnica y racial de todos los Estados Unidos. Esta diversidad incluye el hecho de que casi uno de Read More >

Posted on by Blog Coordinator

Special Delivery! Remember the Workers Behind Your Holiday Packages

Chances are this holiday season you will send and/or receive a package. Probably several. We all delight in the ‘miracle’ of a package arriving on our doorstep a mere few days after ordering. It’s easy to forget that there is no magic involved. Considerable effort and many workers are responsible for the arrival of your Read More >

Posted on by Julie Tisdale-Pardi4 Comments

Wholesale and Retail Trade Fatal and Nonfatal Injuries and Illnesses: 2006–2016

In 2010, NIOSH published a comprehensive overview of the 2006 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) data on injuries, illnesses, and fatalities in the Wholesale and Retail Trade (WRT) sector. Recently, NIOSH researchers expanded on this study to include the ten years of BLS data that followed, for a richer, more complex view. The resulting article, Read More >

Posted on by Vern Putz Anderson, PhD, Jeanette Novakovich, PhD, and Paul Schulte, PhD2 Comments

Bathroom Breaks

Although workers may assume that they will have access to bathrooms at work, many workers in a wide range of industries and occupations say they cannot take the bathroom breaks they need while working.1-6 Insufficient bathroom breaks are an important health and safety consideration for many jobs, such as those involving patient care or specific Read More >

Posted on by Candice Johnson, PhD; Cammie Chaumont Menendez, PhD; and Doug Trout, MD, MHS.6 Comments