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Category: Silica

四個州的人造石檯面工人暴發矽肺病

人造石檯面,又稱「石英石檯面」,由石英骨料和樹脂粘合劑聚合而成。這些材料的外觀與天然石材相似,正越來越廣泛地用於住宅建築和家居裝飾中。在 2010 年至 2018 年間,美國的石英石檯面進口量已增加了近 800%(美國國際貿易委員會)。人造石材含有的結晶矽可能比天然石材多得多(含量 > 90%,而花崗岩中含量 < 45%)(職業安全與健康管理局 [OSHA]/美國國家職業安全衛生研究所 [NIOSH] 危害警報)。諸如切割、打磨、拋光和鑽孔一類的作業有可能將危險含量的矽塵擴散到空氣中。吸入含矽的材料(例如人造石)粉塵會導致矽肺病。矽肺病由肺部疤痕引起,可導致永久性肺損傷,是一種漸進的、致人衰竭的、不可治愈的甚至是致命的疾病。   接觸矽塵會對製造、加工和安裝天然石材檯面和人造石檯面的工人帶來健康危害。矽肺病的症狀可包括咳嗽、疲勞、氣短或胸痛。在接觸可吸入的結晶矽塵長達 10 年或更長時間之後,通常會發生矽肺病。但是,密集的接觸會導致該病進展更快,還會導致更嚴重的肺病。除矽肺病外,吸入少量(「可吸入的」)結晶矽顆粒還會引發肺癌、慢性阻塞性肺病 (COPD) 和腎病,並且會伴發肺部感染、自身免疫性疾病和心血管受損。   先前在美國德克薩斯州曾報導過一例與人造石加工有關的矽肺病病例(Friedman,2015 年)。最近,在加利福尼亞州、科羅拉多州、華盛頓州和德克薩斯州的石材加工業工人中發現了 18 例矽肺病,其中兩例死亡(Rose 和 Heinzerling,2019 年)。這些工人中大多數從事人造石材料的作業,年齡大多不到 50 歲。以色列、西班牙和澳洲也曾報導過人造石工人中暴發矽肺病的情況(Kramer,2012 年;Perez-Alonso,2014 年;Hoy,2018 年;Leso,2019 年)。澳洲昆士蘭州為所有處於風險中的石材加工工人提供了醫學篩查,從中發現有 12% 的工人患上了矽肺病(Kirby,2019 年)。2018 年,美國已有近 9000 家公司和 96000 名員工從事石材加工業(美國勞工統計局的季度就業和工資普查)。由於這些員工中有許多人大概未進行過醫學檢查,因此美國很可能還有其他矽肺病病例仍未發現。   僱主必須為工人做好保護,確保他們不直接與結晶矽塵接觸。聯邦職業安全與健康管理局 (OSHA) 已簽發兩項可吸入的結晶矽塵標準,以為工人提供保護。施工標準 (29 CFR 1926.1153) 以及一般工業和海事作業標準 (29 CFR 1910.1053) 均於 2016 年 Read More >

Posted on by 由公共衛生碩士 Katelynn Dodd、醫學博士 Amy Heinzerling、醫學博士 Cecile Rose、理學碩士兼美國註冊工業衛生師 Carolyn Reeb-Whitaker,以及醫學博士及公共衛生碩士 Robert HarrisonLeave a comment

Brote de silicosis entre los trabajadores de mesones de piedra de ingeniería en cuatro estados

Los mesones hechos con piedras de ingeniería, que también se llaman “superficies de cuarzo”, se producen fusionando agregados de cuarzo con un aglutinante de resina. Estos materiales tienen una apariencia similar a la de la piedra natural y su uso se ha vuelto cada vez más popular en la construcción de casas y las mejoras Read More >

Posted on by Katelynn Dodd, MPH; Amy Heinzerling, MD; Cecile Rose, MD; Carolyn Reeb-Whitaker, MS, CIH; and Robert Harrison, MD, MPHLeave a comment

Outbreak of Silicosis among Engineered Stone Countertop Workers in Four States

Engineered stone countertops, also known as “quartz surfacing,” are made from quartz aggregate held together with a resin binder. These materials are similar in appearance to natural stone and have become increasingly popular for use in home building and home improvement. Quartz surface imports to the United States have increased approximately 800% during 2010–2018 (U.S. Read More >

Posted on by Katelynn Dodd, MPH; Amy Heinzerling, MD; Cecile Rose, MD; Carolyn Reeb-Whitaker, MS, CIH; and Robert Harrison, MD, MPHLeave a comment

Twenty–Nine Year Summary of Silicosis in Michigan

Silicosis is a lung disease caused by exposure to airborne silica. Generally, it causes scarring (pulmonary fibrosis) after 20 or more years of exposure. Since 1988, Michigan has been identifying individuals who develop silicosis with the goal of targeting prevention actions. Michigan’s system is both the longest running and only comprehensive surveillance system for silicosis Read More >

Posted on by Kenneth D. Rosenman, MD and Mary Jo Reilly, MS5 Comments

Improving Occupational Safety and Health in the Construction and Mining Industries

With nearly 126 million full-time U.S. workers at risk of occupational illness and injury, it is critical to prioritize our research efforts to address the most important issues. One approach used by NIOSH and its partners to establish priorities is to consider the burden, need, and impact of potential research topics. This method allows us Read More >

Posted on by Scott Earnest, PhD, PE, CSP; Eileen P. Betit and Dana R. Willmer, PhD2 Comments

Occupational Health Issues in the USA

Happy New Year. As we start afresh in 2017 I wanted to share my recent editorial in the British journal, Occupational Medicine, “Occupational health issues in the USA”.  The article highlights some of the occupational safety and health issues identified as needing attention by the industry sector groups of the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA).  Read More >

Posted on by John Howard, MD10 Comments

Silicosis Update

  Silicosis is a potentially fatal but preventable occupational lung disease caused by inhaling respirable particles containing crystalline silicon dioxide (silica). Quartz, a type of crystalline silica, is the second most abundant mineral in the earth’s crust and workers across a wide range of occupations and industries are exposed to silica-containing dusts. The risks, causes, Read More >

Posted on by Jacek Mazurek, MD, MS, PhD and David Weissman, MD 107 Comments

The Silica/Asphalt Milling Machine Partnership – All Good Things Need Not Come to an End

A recent ceremony at World of Asphalt 2015 celebrated the success of the Silica/Asphalt Milling Machine Partnership’s accomplishments to develop and validate engineering controls for silica dust in asphalt milling operations. The partnership between government, industry, labor was coordinated by the National Asphalt Pavement Association over the past decade to design, test, and implement engineering Read More >

Posted on by Duane Hammond, MS, PE4 Comments
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