Suicide Risk for Veterinarians and Veterinary Technicians

Posted on by Randall J. Nett, MD, MPH; Tracy Witte, PhD; Elizabeth G. Spitzer, MA; Nicole Edwards, MS; and Katherine A. Fowler, PhD

A new study, “Suicides and deaths of undetermined intent among veterinary professionals from 2003 through 2014” sheds new light on the issue of suicide among veterinary professions. It is known that veterinarians in the United States and abroad have a higher suicide risk compared with the general population.[1-8] This new study confirms the increased rated of suicide with stronger statistical methods and introduces new data.

Prior to this study, there have only been three studies of suicides among US veterinarians,[2,5,8] and two of these were conducted before 1996. Given veterinary medical education enrollment has transitioned since 1970 from being nearly 90% male to over 80% female [9] these studies might not tell the whole story. This is especially pertinent when considering the well-established sex/gender differences for suicidal behavior. Notably, in the general population men are more likely to die from suicide whereas women are more likely to attempt suicide. [10] Furthermore, the amount of detail available regarding the circumstances of death is limited in the available US studies because they relied solely on review of death certificates, which do not provide comprehensive information regarding the circumstances of death.

The new study provided a comprehensive analysis of data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). The NVDRS contains data collected from participating states from several sources, including law enforcement, medical examiners and coroners, toxicology reports, and death certificates. The study examined the deaths of veterinary professionals and veterinary students whose cause of death was characterized as suicide or undetermined intent. Researchers included undetermined deaths in the study because of the possibility such deaths could potentially be classified as suicides. Researchers also obtained information on psychosocial circumstances of death.

The study:

  • Confirmed (using stronger statistical methods than previous studies of suicide among veterinarians) that suicide is more likely among veterinarians than among the general population — 1.6 times more likely for male veterinarians and 2.4 times more likely for female veterinarians.
  • Identified, for the first time, a higher likelihood of suicide among veterinary technicians and technologists than among the general population — 5.0 times more likely for males and 2.3 times more likely for females. The results for male veterinary technicians and technologists should be viewed with caution because fewer than 20 deaths were identified, which makes the estimates less reliable. Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers did not have higher likelihood of suicide.
  • Found that poisoning was the most common cause of death among veterinarians. Pentobarbital, a euthanasia solution, was the drug most commonly used. Most pentobarbital poisonings occurred at home.
  • Found that when veterinarians who died from pentobarbital poisoning were excluded from the analysis, the likelihood of male and female veterinarians dying from suicide was not different than that of the general population. This indicates that training on euthanasia procedures and access to pentobarbital are some of the key factors contributing to the problem of suicide among veterinarians. This finding was not true for veterinary technicians and technologists who more often died from opioid poisoning compared with veterinarians.
  • Found that veterinarians were significantly less likely than veterinary technicians and technologists to have a history of a suicide attempt before the fatal incident. Nearly 30% of all decedents had disclosed their suicidal intent before their deaths, 55% had a history of mental health treatment, and 42% were undergoing mental health or substance abuse treatment at their time of death.

Based on the research findings, it will be important to ensure suicide prevention activities are aimed at veterinary technicians as well as veterinarians. In addition, the results indicate the higher likelihood for suicide among veterinarians compared with the general population might be attributable to pentobarbital access. Improving administrative controls for accessing pentobarbital could be a promising suicide prevention strategy among veterinarians. It is important to consider how to control access to pentobarbital without hindering veterinarians’ daily job functions. Requiring a second person’s signature when accessing the drug could have a preventive effect for suicide among veterinarians, while still allowing routine access for clinical purposes. Increased administrative controls could also make it more difficult for a veterinarian to take pentobarbital out of the clinic, given that most pentobarbital-related suicides occurred at home.

It will be important to consider actions that could prevent suicide among all veterinary professionals. An important next step is working with the veterinary community to determine how to implement increased administrative controls for pentobarbital in veterinary clinics. It is also important to consider whether increasing administrative controls for other substances that could be used for suicide, such as opioids, should be pursued in tandem with increased administrative controls for pentobarbital. Administrative controls on substances such as opioids could be an important suicide prevention strategy for veterinary technicians and technologists, who had increased odds of dying by opioid poisoning suicide compared with the general population, although more research is needed to investigate whether opioids were accessed through the workplace.

We welcome your thoughts and suggestions in the comment section below.

If you or someone you know needs support now, call or text 988 or chat 988 connects you with a trained crisis counselor who can help.


Randall J. Nett, MD, MPH, is the Branch Chief for the Field Studies Branch in the NIOSH Respiratory Health Division.

Tracy Witte, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Psychology Department at Auburn University and the Director of the Suicidal Behavior and Psychopathology Research Laboratory.

Elizabeth G. Spitzer, MA, is a doctoral candidate in clinical psychology at Auburn University and is currently completing her pre-doctoral internship at VA Boston Medical Center. 

Nicole Edwards, MS, is a Technical Information Specialist in the Field Studies Branch in the NIOSH Respiratory Health Division

Katherine A. Fowler, PhD, is the Senior Scientist for the National Violent Death Reporting System in the Division of Violence Prevention’s Surveillance Branch, in the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.




1. Bartram DJ, Baldwin DS. Veterinary surgeons and suicide: a structured review of possible influences on increased risk. Vet Rec 2010;166:388–397.

2. Blair A, Hayes HM Jr. Mortality patterns among US veterinarians, 1947–1977: an expanded study. Int J Epidemiol 1982;11:391–397.

3. Hem E, Haldorsen T, Aasland OG, et al. Suicide rates according to education with a particular focus on physicians in Norway 1960–2000. Psychol Med 2005;35:873–880.

4. Jones-Fairnie H, Ferroni P, Silburn S, et al. Suicide in Australian veterinarians. Aust Vet J 2008;86:114–116.

5. Miller JM, Beaumont JJ. Suicide, cancer, and other causes of death among California veterinarians, 1960–1992. Am J Ind Med 1995;27:37–49.

6. Milner AJ, Niven H, Page K, et al. Suicide in veterinarians and veterinary nurses in Australia: 2001–2012. Aust Vet J 2015;93:308–310.

7. Platt B, Hawton K, Simkin S, et al. Suicidal behavior and psychosocial problems in veterinary surgeons: a systematic review. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2012;47:223–240.

8. Tomasi SE, Fechter-Leggett ED, Edwards NT, et al. Suicide among veterinarians in the United States from 1979 through 2015. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;254:104–112.

9. Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. Annual data report 2016–2017. Available at: Accessed Oct 16, 2018.

10. Drapeau CW, McIntosh JL, American Association of Suicidology. U.S.A. suicide 2016: official final data. Washington, DC: American Association of Suicidology, 2017. Available at: Accessed Oct 16, 2018.

Posted on by Randall J. Nett, MD, MPH; Tracy Witte, PhD; Elizabeth G. Spitzer, MA; Nicole Edwards, MS; and Katherine A. Fowler, PhD

13 comments on “Suicide Risk for Veterinarians and Veterinary Technicians”

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    This summary mentions that psychosocial factors were measured, but it’s not clear what psychosocial factors were assessed or if their association with suicide was fully explored. It’s important to investigate what, if any, stressors associated with veterinary training or practice might be contributing to this problem (e.g., high debt levels, long hours, working with mistreated or otherwise suffering animals). Even if access to dangerous drugs is controlled, this amounts to just taking away the method of suicide (which may be replaced with some alternative method). Public health prevention efforts should also be aimed at early identification and mental health treatment of vets and vet techs at risk for suicide (e.g., exhibiting symptoms of depression) as well as addressing any modifiable occupational stressors that are contributing to the problem.

    We agree that it is important to understand the work-related stressors that contribute to suicides among veterinarians and veterinary technicians. In our analysis (Witte et al. 2019), we reported that 21% of veterinarian decedents and 22% of veterinary technician decedents had a contributing job problem before suicide. We also described how the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) data is potentially limited by the degree of completeness of certain fields and the degree of knowledge available to friends, family, and colleagues who participate in the death investigation. In other words, a decedent could have been experiencing work-related stressors but did not tell people who participated in the investigation, or the information was not documented during the investigation. NIOSH is currently planning additional studies that will evaluate the work-related factors that contributed to some veterinarians considering suicide.

    We also agree that a comprehensive approach to suicide prevention among all veterinary professionals is important, which includes reducing existing barriers to seeking treatment for those veterinarians and veterinary technicians who are experiencing mental illness. Another potential component of comprehensive suicide prevention is restricting access to pentobarbital. As described in our manuscript, the majority of veterinarian decedents who died from pentobarbital poisoning died at home. This means the drug was removed from a clinic setting and used in a home setting. There is a body of evidence indicating that if you remove a particular method used for suicide, those persons who are contemplating suicide are unlikely to choose another method as a means of substitution. For veterinarians, even if another method is chosen, given the knowledge that veterinarians have for the euthanasia procedure and their ability to calculate a lethal dose, the alternative method chosen could be less lethal. That said, it will be important to monitor the effectiveness of any means safety strategy to determine whether it is having its intended results (i.e. reducing the overall suicide rate in this population).

    When I was a kid, growing up on ranches in AZ and TX most of the Vets who came out to treat cattle and horses were great men (I don’t ever remember seeing a woman vet then, not in Large Animal practices). But I can remember my Dad saying several times “Wish Doc XXX wouldn’t come out here drunk.”

    Later in life and as a friend with a Vet in Houston, TX, she remarked many Vets moved from drinking to drugs in the 80s, and more suicides had increased among the Vets she had gone to school with over the years.

    Sad that many don’t get help before killing themselves.

    Are any of the authors attending the APHA Annual Meeting this November? If so, please contact me regarding participation in a roundtable for action on Suicide prevention in the healthcare community. For the first time, the spotlight includes the veterinary medical community and your input through this new study would really help shed light on this important issue.

    I would be interested in a study that also addresses the incidence of Bartonella in these study participants.

    It is the responsibility of Government agencies, the big Corporations, the Pharma to lunch globally (Client Educations) via all media outlets. There are two major issues :
    1. Solve the Student Loan Crisis
    2. Animal Owners need to take responsibilities prior to attach veterinarians and staff for cost of treating neglected animals or emergencies.

    Veterinarians anthropomorphize animals and via that mind-set have a more intense sense of loss when a patient succumbs to an illness. Also, veterinarians have to deal with euthanasia on a fairly frequent basis. Fortunately the problem of exposure to inhalational anesthetic gases has been minimized, so the affects of fluorinated ethers is lessened. This was identified as a cause of physician surgeons problems back in the 1980s. All things being equal, pets and service animals generally do not live as long as people. So the sense of loss is recurrent. Veterinarians should be made aware of this situation and be trained in how to appreciate the quality of life they provide for pets and animals, versus the fact that the ultimate statistic (one life, one death) is there for these wonderful animals that enrich our lives . . . and US! Mother Nature and Father Time are bearing down on all creatures on Earth. Veterinarians play a vital role in helping animals, each day, and that is how it is supposed to be. God bless all creatures.

    I am a veterinarian of 50 years experience and have come to understand the difference between what I could accomplish and what I could not.

    Additionally, lots of people get pets and give them up with the first challenge. Support your local rescue and sanctuary facilites.

    Be well always.

    I’ve become increasingly concerned about the disparity in resources for suicide prevention for veterinarians vs technicians. For example, my current hospital has specific support groups for veterinarians, then one catch all group for all staff that veterinarians can also attend. There isn’t anything specifically for licensed technicians. This group seems to be discounted in the workplace yet (in my experience over 25 years) has a higher suicide rate. I’m not understanding why this disparity exists and am trying to learn more on this topic.

    I don’t think requiring a second signature would work. The fact that most poisonings occur at home indicates that it is not a spur-of-the-moment decision: they have planned to take their lives.

    Better training of suicidality amongst clinicians and clinical staff is likely the way to go. “Doc Smith seems oddly chipper today, and he’s just asked me for enough pentobarbital to kill a horse” should raise alarm bells.

    NIOSH thanks you for your comment and appreciates your perspectives here. We support training and awareness building among managers and team leaders so they are better equipped to recognize and intervene on behalf of workers who may be struggling with depression, suicidal thoughts, or other mental health concerns. Improving working conditions, supportive supervision, building trust among leaders and workers, and other approaches to lowering stress and other negative work factors is an important way to support all workers. Providing resources, referrals and support for workers with mental health concerns is also vital.

    The NIOSH Hierarchy of Controls, as it relates to Total Worker Health, prioritizes implementing policies or practices that lower risks using environmental and administrative approaches – one such strategy could better control access to substances like pentobarbital, or require additional effort, documentation or oversight in the use of certain drugs. Research suggests that environmental and administrative controls are more likely to be effective than training on suicidality taken alone. Actions to address the top-most components of the hierarchy (eliminating or reducing the risks and stressors that may be related to suicide and promoting protective factors known to improve mental health and wellbeing) are considered more effective than those on the lower-most components of the hierarchy – those that solely rely on the individual to act. Suicide prevention training and individual assistance when needed are still critical components of a holistic approach to suicide prevention. Trainings can also help inform on and reinforce the policies and practices designed to lower risks.

    Ultimately multiple measures taken altogether to promote the health and wellbeing of all those working in the clinic, using all steps within the hierarchy, are considered the most effective ways to protect and promote the safety and health of all members of the clinic team.

    Compounded by in many occasions by unreasonable working hours, mental conflict could arise from a misalignment between societal demands, in terms of roles and values, and practicioners’ experiences.

    For example, this disconnect can be observed among a section of the public who may wish to believe that their animal companions are idealized beings, projecting anxieties and unreasonable expectations onto their reactions and demands. With professional sectors where costs and productivity override other considerations.

    Or cases where owners request terminations because their financial or logistical constraints, or the animals may have reached the end of their productive life.

    Veterinarians deal in their professional lives with animals as primarily sources of companionship, selective breeding, intensive food production, experimentation, or entertainment. These perspectives present a more challenging understanding of compassion, one that is not dev of contradictions and tensions.

    In this context, animals are rarely considered as autonomous individuals with the freedom to live, enjoy, fight, have sex (if any) or suffer, independently of our influence.

    So here you have: society demands, professional experiences, and personal emotions of animal respect in a sweet and sour dish.

    Or a dispute between utilitarian versus ethical considerations; and in the latter case which views are more important, ours or theirs?

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Page last reviewed: October 27, 2023
Page last updated: October 27, 2023